According to the laws of nature, when using semipermeable membrane (membrane solution: to make one or several components by selective membrane and other components cannot pass) will be pure solvent (water) and lattice solution, solvent (water) through the membrane to the solution side of spontaneous flow.
The so-called reverse osmosis (RO) refers to exert sufficient pressure on the solution side (osmotic pressure), it will make the solvent (water) through a semipermeable membrane to the solvent (water) flow measurement.
Using the different permeation pressure of different substances, we can use the reverse osmosis method which is larger than the osmotic pressure to achieve the purpose of separation, extraction, purification and concentration. Osmotic pressure depends on the kind and concentration of solution and temperature, with independent semipermeable membrane.
A brief history of reverse osmosis
The reverse osmosis phenomenon has been discovered for more than 200 years, but the real research began in 1950s. Membrane separation technology as a new, efficient and energy-saving separation technology has occupied an important position in the field of water and other liquid separation.
In 1953, Reid and others at University of Florida first proposed the idea of desalination of seawater by reverse osmosis technology, and suggested that the US Department of interior should include the research of reverse osmosis in the national plan.
In 1960, the first practical reverse osmosis membrane was developed by Loeb and Sourirajan of the University of California in the United States, which marks the birth of modern membrane science and technology.
In the early 70s, the Du Pont aromatic polyamide hollow fiber reverse osmosis group came out. Since then, the development of reverse osmosis membrane has been a major breakthrough.
At the end of 80s, high salt of aromatic polyamide composite membrane to achieve industrialization;
In 90s, the ultra-low pressure and high flux composite membrane entered the market.
Today, the capacity of the world's reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane water treatment devices has reached millions of tons per day.
Reverse osmosis has become the most economical technology for seawater desalination.
Reverse osmosis has become the first provider of the capacity of brackish water desalination.
Reverse osmosis has become the first provider of ultra pure water and pure water.